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How Arc Flash PPE Impacts Both Human Performance and Human Error

In this webinar, given by Jim Pollard at Unlimited PPE Inc, he discusses how arc flash PPE can effectively reduce the severity of harm caused by an arc flash exposure. Advances in arc flash PPE technology have resulted in the availability of better designs that when used by a Qualified Electrical Worker can reduce the probability of an arc flash by minimizing human error and improving human performance.

Jim Pollard is a subject matter expert on arc flash PPE and has contributed to technical committees in the USA and Canada. His goal is to save lives by helping companies be compliant with arc flash and electrical safety. He believes every workplace electrical fatality is preventable.

See the full transcript of the webinar below.

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Full Transcript of the Video

Jim Pollard at Unlimited PPE Inc: Hi, my name is Jim Pollard. I am the guest speaker for the EasyPower webinar this week. My presentation is "Arc Flash PPE: Impacts on Both Human Performance & Human Error". The presentation I've prepared for this week's webinar is: a quick introduction, an arc flash overview, anatomy of arc flash PPE, how it's used as a risk control, the reduction of human error, and a quick F-A-Q. Disclaimer, this session is not a qualification training for electrical workers. You are cautioned to consult the applicable standard, be it CSA Z462, or NFPA 70E, prior to making any changes in safe work practices. And the opinions expressed are by myself, are my personal technical opinion.

As the (00:01:00) webinar presenter, I'm a voting member on various different applicable standards, including the CSA Z462, and ULC S801. I'm very much involved in social media, so please find me on LinkedIn. And I've authored several different trade magazine articles. My company in Canada is on limited PPE. We represent the Oberon Company, ESPS, Electrical Safety Program Solutions, Inc., which is a division of Data Tech Educational Services and corporation, so the Oberon Company is specific to arc flash PPE. They are the pioneer of the industry, having over 30 years’ experience in manufacturing arc flash PPE. Their website is, and they manufacture products such as arc flash suits, arc-rated face shields, and much, much more. They're located in New Bedford, Massachusetts. All their products are manufactured in the United States. The arc flash overview. So, what is an arc flash?

(00:02:00) Most of us on this call would understand what an arc flash is, but just a quick overview. An electric arc is the passage of substantial electrical current through ionized gases. An arc flash hazard is a dangerous condition associated with the possible release of energy caused by an electric arc. Typically, lasts less than one second. We're talking about extremely high thermal energy, and it's explosive in nature. It can cause a pressure wave from expanding metallic material into vapor. When can it happen? So, workers perform tasks that put them at risk, including voltage testing, removing bolted-on panel covers, inserting or removing circuit breakers, just as a few examples. How can it happen? As a conductive object gets too close to an energized conductor or circuit part and ground. An electric arc super-heats and ionizes the air, allowing for a path for the electrical current to flow. And it does require sufficient voltage. The electrical current can sustain itself and then transform into an arc flash. What is the cause?

(00:03:00) This is where we're spending more time and effort in our industry, on human error. And so essentially, the most common cause for an arc flash is human error in performance. When do you need protection? The human threshold for a second-degree skin burn injury is approximately 1.2 calories based on the Stoll Curve. So, if you take a cigarette lighter, using the image on the screen here, it's about one calorie if you hold that about one inch away from your fingertip for one second. The applicable standards in the industry that apply to arc flash PPE. I'm located in Canada, so I put GSA Z462, and there's also the NFPA 70E, which is the global seed document, or seed standard for any workplace electrical safety. Other standards include NEC, ULC, IEC, and many more. We have a revision cycle here in North America, for the NFPA 70E and CSA Z462.

At the time of this presentation, the most current (00:04:00) edition, or publication is 2015. We are about to introduce and publish the 2018 edition. And as part of the technical committee, we are working on 2021, and future additions to the standard. Applicable PPE standards. There's a variety, it includes ASTM standards, CSA standards, ANSI standards in the United States. You can look at almost every single individual component that a worker wears for protection from the electric arc as an arc flash, and there's an associated standard with each one of them. In my presentations, I often get the eyes glazed-over effect within the audience, when I review all these different standards. It just sounds like a bowl of alphabet soup.

Just to keep it real focused here on the presentation, we're gonna talk more about the anatomy of arc flash PPE, how we're using it as a risk control, and then more of the leading-edge (00:05:00) type information and subject matter, which is how do we reduce human error? By reducing human error, we can certainly reduce the likelihood of an arc flash occurring. So, in terms of the anatomy of arc flash PPE, it's personal protective equipment consisting of specially designed and appropriately tested products suitable for use by workers that need protection from the thermal effects of an arc flash hazard. Specially designed, appropriately tested, and suitable for use, are the three key points. In terms of how it works, so arc flash PPE prevents the burns. So, we have the initial stage of an arc flash event being a radiation wave. We have a pressure wave that follows, then often we have debris that is being shot at ballistic velocities, at the worker, such as copper particles. The thermal energy equals the incident energy, that is the calculations. And the partners here at EasyPower do a great job (00:06:00) in terms of helping you do those calculations to determine what PPE is needed, so identifying the severity as part of the risk assessment. Arc flash PPE is designed to protect against the thermal effects of an arc flash. We have a few different items here listed, such as the arc plasma temperature, the surface of the sun, so the core of the arc flash, or the arc plasma, is approximately four-times the temperature of the surface of the sun. We have identified clothing ignition, burning clothing, second-degree skin burns. Again, that's about 1.2 calories. The clothing ignition causes fatalities, that's the number-one leading cause. Arc flashes rarely cause fatalities unless the worker's clothing ignites. And it's important to note that only natural fiber clothing can be worn under arc flash PPE. The reason for this is that it won't melt or drip.

Natural fiber clothing will certainly burn, but the melting and dripping is where we increase the depth of injury, in terms (00:07:00) of the burns, and it increases the severity of the injury caused to the worker. In review, arc flash PPE, we have three different points. So again, specially designed, appropriately tested, and suitable for use. Those are the three key points you want to consider when you're reviewing arc flash PPE. The testing that we run in terms of certification and the creation, so the R&D behind arc flash PPE, it's based on exposed skin. So, industry basis point, for a second-degree skin burn, again, is 1.2 calories. I mentioned previously how the depth of injury is the actual degree of the burn. We have first-degree all the way through to fourth-degree burns. A second-degree skin burn is recoverable, we can actually rub some cream on there. There's treatments that we can use. But a third-degree is not, so we want to avoid that third-degree skin burn injury at all costs possible.

What is an arc rating? There's two different types of arc ratings that are defined (00:08:00) by the ASTM F1959 standard. We have the ATPV, or arc thermal performance value, which is the incident energy level at which there is a 50% probability of sufficient heat transfer to cause the onset of a second-degree skin burn injury. And then we have a breakopen threshold, or an E sub B-T, where at which point the incident energy level is 50% probability of the formation of holes or tears in the layer closest to the skin. We test the products at a high current testing laboratory. So, for example, with the Oberon Company, I was at Kinectrics Laboratory last week, we were running some testing on some arc flash suit hoods. The test setup that I have on the screen currently, the slide shows the F1959 test setup, which will test panels of fabrics in order to determine the arc rating.

The ATPV test report, which is hopefully the result of your (00:09:00) day at the testing laboratory, and it's essentially, we're gonna determine the 50% probability of that second-degree skin burn injury. And when you look at these test reports, you can actually see the probability of a burn from five percent up to 90%. However, it's the 50% probability point that's gonna be labeled on the garment itself, or on the product. Following a test, we look at the fabric. We evaluate it for breakopen. This helps us determine whether we're gonna rate the fabric as an ATPV or an E sub B-T. The face shield and hood testing, it is a different setup, so it's the ASTM F2178 test setup. Again, the same high current test laboratory. The screenshot that I have up on the webinar currently shows on the left-hand side, the test before it's conducted. And on the right-hand side is after the arc flash suit hoods have been exposed to an arc flash.

Testing for face shields and hoods (00:10:00) is similar, however the advantage of testing with 2178 is that we're actually testing actual products, which is fantastic for the workers to know how the product that they're gonna wear and use for protection, to reduce the injury based on the severity, and how that's gonna perform. And different to a fabric test, where the fabrics are tested, the arc ratings are determined, and yet we don't fully understand how the manufacturer may cut and sew the material and create the finished product that you're gonna wear for protection. So, I mentioned about last week, with Oberon at the test laboratory. I just put a couple pictures here in the presentation. So, we have Jack Hirschmann, the founder and CEO at Oberon. We've lined-up all the hoods, there's 20 test, 20 test specimens there on that desk. And then on the right-hand side, you can see what we've done with those test specimens, in testing.

So, over 20 samples were used to determine the arc rating, and then the labeled arc (00:11:00) rating is the lower of either the hood, which is a combination of the front, meaning the face shield, and the fabric, in the design of the arc flash suit hood, or the fabric itself. So, in the case of Oberon hoods, just for example, the front of the hood, with that clear-gray lens, provides a significant more protection compared to the fabric itself. So, we rate the hoods as the fabric rating, and that's because if the worker's facing away from the arc flash, the weakest point of the hood would be the fabric itself. How to identify arc flash PPE. So, this screenshot shows us the label from a typical garment, or arc flash suit hood. The ASTM F1506 standard is the performance standard that the manufacturers must follow. It provides guidance and instruction on how to label a garment.

So, I've identified those different points here. It's important to note (00:12:00) the arc rating itself, the applicable standards that it's in compliance with. The care instructions, so cleaning. And there's even an identification code tracking system. In Oberon's case, we use a barcode and individual serial number. So, each and every garment, or product, that's manufactured, is assigned an individual number, which is great for myself as the Oberon rep in Canada. If I'm visiting with an end user, and they have a very old product, I can actually send that serial number back to the Oberon factory, and they could tell me exactly what day, what year, it was manufactured. So, great due diligence for the end users, for the customers that wear the products. The laboratory evaluation, we're looking at the performance. So, testing is completed to measure the performance of the product. ASTM standards are used to certify that product. What we also conduct at the laboratory would be scouting, or some type of evaluation, so material response evaluation.

We're looking for breakopen, (00:13:00) melting, dripping, deformation, after-flame time, shrinkage, ignition. Those are just some of the examples of what else we do at the laboratory, as part of the R&D that we invest in manufacturing the products. Arc flash PPE never expires. The typical arc flash PPE can last five to 10 years, often longer. So, properly care for and maintain your arc flash PPE. Pre-use inspections are required by the applicable standard. Repair and replace as necessary. What I do in my day-to-day activities, is typically working with end users. For example, this week I'll be with an end user, and auditing their actual products that they have all throughout their plant facility. I encourage everybody to do the same thing, at least on an annual basis. You pull all the product out of the lockers, you have a look at its condition, you repair it if possible, or replace it if necessary.

If your PPE has been exposed (00:14:00) to an arc flash, it should never be re-used again. Arc flash PPE is not perfect. So, some situations could result with a worker being injured even while wearing their protection. The CSA Z462 Standard recognizes that beyond the thermal effects of an arc flash hazard, other injuries can occur. Arc flash PPE does work, and potential burn injuries would be reduced and be survivable. Just important to note that there are elements to an arc flash that are unpredictable. So, it's important that you wear your PPE, but it's not rock-solid. You're not wearing a cinder brick wall for protection from the arc flash. When arc flash PPE fails, examples would be poor design, you know, for specifically the interface, the non-FR components that could be used in the manufacturing process, by some manufacturers out there that don't understand the ASTM F1506 Standard, and how to use that standard (00:15:00) in manufacturing products.

Workers' body parts could be closer to the source, so your head, your arms, et cetera. We actually consider your arms and hands to be expendable, because we're doing the calculations, or EasyPower will do the calculations based on the distance from the arcing source to your chest and your face. However, we often work with our hands and arms extended towards the arc, and as you get closer to the arc flash, the incident energy will be exponentially higher. You know, distance is your friend. If you get farther away it's an inverse square relationship, so the incident energy drops as you get farther away from the source of the arc flash. If the arc is moving, it can decrease the distance. It can actually, the arc could be closer to the worker, and you're gonna see some localized spots where we're gonna have more heat than others. And the equipment configuration, meaning convective versus radiant exposure.

This image here from a test laboratory just shows an Oberon (00:16:00) coat and bib overall. Again, that arc is rather unpredictable, so the arc does track, it does move. We show that image where I'm circling that one spot where we had focused energy from the movement of the arc. Thankfully, the design of the arc flash suit often is a bib overall with a coat, and then you have your suit hood. So, there is sufficient overlap, so the corresponding area behind that darkened spot on the coat, on the bib overalls, doesn't show much damage. Therefore, the worker would not have seen enough heat. We shouldn't have had any injury whatsoever. The rules of thumb when you're using arc flash PPE, is that it only works when you wear it. That's kind of obvious, but it needed to be said. Never wear clothing that contains materials that melt, such as your underlayers or garment design. A question I had just recently from one of my customers was: what about your outer wear? You know, we're moving into the winter months, and questions come up about winder jackets.

Well if I have on my proper arc-rated PPE, such as (00:17:00) my coveralls, balaclava, arc-rated face shield and hardhat, and we need to layer up for some warmth, what type of a jacket should we be wearing? Well the standards, such as the NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 identify that outer wear, so a jacket or a parka, it also must be arc-rated. We don't wanna be wearing just a regular jacket over top of our arc-rated clothing ensemble. All electrical specific PPE requires a pre-use inspection. You always need to wash your arc flash PPE separately from other garments. And always, always, always follow the manufacturer's guidelines for care, use and maintenance. In Canada, I've developed user guides for my customers, to help them with the training. It's incumbent on the employer, that when you provide PPE to the worker, that you actually provide them with training or instruction on care and use.

So often, the customers that buy arc flash PPE, they're not subject matter experts (00:18:00) and they need assistance from the manufacturer. So, those resources are available for you if you're interested. Common industry gaps that we see in the market. A gap would be to evaluate arc flash PPE through learning about applicable standards. I mentioned all those different standards previously. It is a lot like alphabet soup, so it's difficult, and hence it is an industry gap. We often see that employers aren't thinking through how workers use their PPE. They're not preparing for an arc flash accident, such as the rescue, first responders, providing adequate arc flash PPE, care and use training to the workers, not having electrical safety programs, and not reviewing existing arc flash and shock PPE, to identify what needs to be repaired, reconditioned, or replaced as necessary. So, those are common gaps that we should be addressing. Beware of PPE pitfalls.

So, a long (00:19:00) coat suit design is often a pitfall in industry. If a worker were to squat, just like my image on the screen here with the worker with their knee on the floor, you can actually see the blue part of their coveralls, and that is a gap. So, if a worker were involved in an arc flash, they could sustain some rather significant burn injuries in that exposed area. This type of a system is rather difficult for a worker to use, because they have to keep their knees together when they squat. So, we wanna use, in my opinion anyway, we wanna have a bib overall or a pants with the coat, and have sufficient overlap so we have lots of protection for the worker in the event of an arc flash exposure. Beware of myths versus realities. This is still common in our industry, that we feel there's a limit or a cap at 40 calories. You know, safe PPE does exist above 40 calories.

Just last week I was testing at Kinectrics with Oberon, and we were exposing products (00:20:00) up to 117 calories without getting any burns. That was a 100-cal suit hood that we were testing. We couldn't actually get any burns. We were testing as high as we could. In the past, Oberon has certified a 140-calorie ballistic arc flash suit. So, safe PPE does exist above 40 calories. It's not a limit. Really, the arc flash, the incident energy does not directly correlate with the blast, so I could spend a whole webinar topic on just this alone, but it's important to note that blast pressure is not related to the incident energy. So, moving on in the presentation. Arc flash PPE is used as a risk control, and essentially, before work is started, the applicable standard requires a risk assessment procedure is completed, and that breaks down into hazard identification, so examples would be shock, arc flash, and blast.

Assess the risks, and then implement the risk controls (00:21:00) using a hierarchy of controls. Now that hierarchy of controls would have arc flash PPE as the last line of defense. It's however the most readily available and commonly used control to mitigate the risk. Risk is a combination of severity and likelihood, as defined by NFPA and CSA standards. So, we look at the severity as being the potential arc flash or thermal energy, measured as incident energy. And then the likelihood is where we rely on your safety-related work practices, your safety management system. So, an electrical safety program helps in terms of identifying the likelihood of an arc flash occurring.

For example, your program, if it were following say ANSI, so some type of an occupational health and safety management system standard and framework, where they identify, would have hazard identification, training, roles, responsibilities, your risk assessment procedure, (00:22:00) such as forms, workflow process. The standards, you see there's one arrow pointing towards the program, and that would be your NFPA 70E or CSA standard that's being used as information, so more or less a tool box that would be used in order to build up your program. And then your program defines everything that surrounds it, including your electrical specific PPE, tools, and equipment, or arc flash PPE for this presentation's purpose. Who needs arc-rated PPE? Well they have electrical workers in the industry, and we have non-electrical workers. And non-electrical workers are not permitted to be performing energized electrical work. Therefore, they do not need any arc-rated PPE. Electrical workers would, if they're doing the typical work tasks that are considered energized work tasks, such as testing and troubleshooting. When is arc-rated PPE not required?

So, it's not likely to occur when we have electrical equipment in a normal (00:23:00) operating condition. And that's referring to the doors being closed, covers are on, there's no exposed components, the equipment is in normal operating condition. So, there's elements to what is a normal operating condition, defined by the standard. And in a normal operating condition, we don't anticipate an arc flash, because the likelihood of occurrence is so low that we don't require a worker to wear arc flash PPE. The arc flash PPE is designed to reduce risk. It actually reduces the severity of the bodily harm, so the injury to the worker is reduced by using arc flash PPE. And again, risk is a combination of likelihood of occurrence and the severity of injury or harm from a hazard. The severity, so the PPE then protects from the bodily injury. We reduce the severity by lowering the risk.

So, appropriately rated and suitable for use arc-rated PPE reduces the severity to a recoverable second-degree (00:24:00) skin burn injury. And here, I'm referencing again that ATPV, or the arc rating that we measure and determine based on the high current laboratory and testing that we've done. The innovation in arc flash PPE goes towards reducing the likelihood. So, new innovations in arc flash PPE reduces human error by improving human performance. A real simple example of this is that LED lamp on the upper crown of a face shield, that I'm showing on this slide. If we could add more light to the work task, we improve human performance. The majority of all arc flash incidents are caused by human error. So, by improving human performance, we lower the likelihood of workers making mistakes, and mistakes cause arc flashes.

So, the innovations in arc flash PPE, actually the PPE themselves, the PPE itself, sorry, it reduces the severity, and the leading-edge (00:25:00) technologies in arc flash PPE reduces the likelihood. So, reducing human error lowers the risk. Improvements in arc flash PPE design and arc-rated material technology minimize mistakes. Examples of this would be ultra-lightweight fabrics, clear faceshield and lens technology, comfort and productivity features. These are elements that are really important to a worker when they're using arc flash PPE. Arc flash PPE, for the most part, when it comes to electrical workers, it's seen as a barrier to doing your work. If a worker had a choice between wearing PPE or not, they're gonna take the not option. It's always easier to not have any type of a layer between you and your work, but we know it's a necessity in order to reduce the injury in the event of an incident. So, when you have to wear PPE, it's important that it is something that's not going to diminish your production, it's not going to affect your ability to perform that work task.

And how (00:26:00) to select arc flash PPE? Appropriate arc flash PPE is selected based on the potential thermal incident energy exposure, as determined by an employer's arc flash risk assessment. So, we look at two different methods. So, incident energy analysis method, where we look to EasyPower for performing the engineering calculations. Alternatively, we could use the arc flash PPE category method. Selecting your PPE, make sure that the arc rating, so the performance, what we expect from the product itself, is equal to or greater than the arc flash hazard. And then selection examples. We have here, an example between a face shield or a suit hood. An arc-rated hood shall be used when the estimated incident energy exposure is greater than 12 calories. And now reducing human error through the innovation in the arc flash PPE. So, evolution of PPE design.

Through our evaluation(00:27:00), our assessment of incidents within industry, that's what we've used to help learn from our mistakes. And what I mean by that is, here's one example from Canada, from Saskatchewan actually. This happened in March, 2015. This worker was racking in a circuit breaker. In this work task, they removed their gloves to operate a flashlight. And what occurred, you know, Murphy's Law has it if you take off part of your PPE, you're gonna be involved in an arc flash. And in this situation, the arcing fault resulted in an arc flash measured at 140 calories. This worker had on a 70-calorie arc flash suit, which gave them protection for their face, their head, their body. However, the exposed hands received significant second and third-degree skin burns. So, the worker had commented on the image on the far left, of the hood, saying this is the hood that saved my face and possibly my life.

And I just put a few different images (00:28:00) that this worker provided to me, documenting day one, day two, day five, and day 10 of the process with the skin burn injuries on their hands. We do not ever, ever want to take off part of our PPE. An example would be if we need work task lighting, that we make sure that our PPE provides that lighting. Workers need to see their work, and most times workers are just trying to make do with their current PPE. So, an effective work task lighting, here's a snapshot example where you could add an LED light to an arc-rated arc flash face shield upper crown. If you're in the mining industry, you're familiar with this, where you have those lamps attached to your hardhat. Those lamps could be moved forward, using a minor setup adaptor to the upper crown of a face shield, to provide light.

And then specifically regarding face shields, and the lens technologies for arc flash PPE, there are now gray face (00:29:00) shields on the market. So, compared to green, they are safer. And what I mean by safer is they allow workers to see their work clearly. They allow for 100% color acuity, so your colors are 100% accurate versus being altered, or even shaded-out based on the yellow or green lenses. When workers see their work task clearly, they make less mistakes, they lower the probability of an incident. And this type of technology currently is available as a stand-alone face shield, up to 20 calories. It's actually the gray infrared dye, or IR dye that provides the protection from an arc flash. If you recall a few slides ago, I showed that breakdown of an arc flash, and the first stage is that radiation wave. Well that radiation wave contains the infrared that burns the worker.

So, traditional face shields on the market are green, or have that green dye, which is an IR dye, that activates to prevent that thermal energy from transferring through (00:30:00) that material and burning your face. So, the newer technology available on the market is gray, which is safer than green in terms of color perception. And that gray is the IR dye, and provides the protection from the arc flash. How does that work? Well gray is a medium-density filter. In layman's terms, it just simply blocks the entire wavelength of white. So, we have the full spectrum that is visible to the worker. When you're using a traditional green face shield, there's actually yellow mixed-in with that, because yellow makes our eyes more sensitive to light, so it's, in a way it's tricking the worker to believe there's more light on the work task. However, what it's doing is, it's actually, it's changing the perception of the worker's color acuity. If you're looking at colors that contain yellow, yellow being a primary color, well then those colors have now changed.

So, an example would be, using the color wheel, this shows us the primary colors, and then how we can make new (00:31:00) colors. Traditional green, yellow arc flash face shields and suit hood shields alter a worker's color perception. And an example of that would be using just this little scenario I built here, which is a relay with some different colored wires. On the left-hand side, if I asked you to find the green wire, or identify the green wire and the blue wire, on the left-hand side it shows that the green wire is in front, and in the back is the blue wire. However, if you look through a gray face shield, which provides true color acuity, or true color perception, sorry, you have on the back, you have the green wire, and the front is the blue wire. So, we could easily see, using this example, how mistakes could be made by wearing traditional arc flash PPE. And the new technology allows us to see clearly and accurately. So, true color gray hoods. That same lens technology that's available as an arc flash face shield, is available in hoods. So, it's safer than green.

Workers can see the full (00:32:00) color of their work tasks. And this technology now, again, we were testing with this technology just last week, it's available right up to 100 calories. It prevents having to lift the front of your hood to accurately determine the colors. And then you can add features that help with your productivity and comfort, such as the LED lamp and hood ventilation systems. The lighter-weight fabrics, just imagine having to wear a heavy-weight arc flash suit. I got my start in this industry about 12 years ago, when arc flash suits were really heavy to wear. They were nicknamed everything from bomb suits to Homer Simpson suits, or space suits. And everything was difficult, just walking to your work task was difficult. Now, the lighter-weight fabrics allow for mobility, and the increased worker productivity. So, if workers are not suffering, if they're not burdened by wearing their PPE, they're gonna be clear of mind.

They're gonna be able to perform their work better, and they're gonna make (00:33:00) less mistakes. So, these functional designs go a long way to optimal worker safety. And then the comfort options reduce heat stress as well. So such as an arc-rated cooling vest that you can wear underneath the suit, or over-top of your daily wear. The ventilation systems, this image here shows the side-shot of me wearing an arc flash suit. You can see that the hose at the back, which is that small little fan unit, that brings air, external air, inside the hood, and that air is actually diverted up and around, and down inside of the lens. The purpose of this is to deliver the air to the breathing zone for the worker to be comfortable. We want a gentle flow of air that's delivered right to where they need it, right where their breathing zone is. And we also want that air, the external air, at its external temperature, to run down the inside of the lens.

So, one of the concerns that I often hear from different employers, about (00:34:00) traditional arc flash PPE, is fogging issues within their hood, in particular in the winter months. So, if you have an anti-fog coating on the inside, well that typically works really well in ambient temperatures or just your typical 70-degree and warmer temperatures, but when it's really cold, your anti-fog doesn't work very well, so by bringing external air that is cold, from the outside, inside, it prevents any of those fogging issues whatsoever. So it keeps your worker productive as well as being comfortable. And here we have just a common example of one of the F-A-Q's I get, one of our frequently asked questions, such as the type two hardhats. So in Canada, we have two different types, or type one, type two. Some of the provinces require by law that you wear a type two hardhat.

If you determine the type of hardhat based on the risk or the severity, or the potential injury to the worker, many employers have determined that a type two is necessary, (00:35:00) based on the potential flying debris created by an arc flash. And that foam liner in a type two provides that side-impact protection. The question I often get is well what happens to that foam in the event of an arc flash? Many, many years ago, Oberon had conducted testing using the available type two hardhats on the market. You can see the old green lens, or green face shield used in this test setup here. We even turned it around backwards, because when you have a face shield and a hardhat, and you're facing the arc flash, well that system provides protection and it prevents any of that thermal energy, or sufficient enough thermal energy to come through that lens, to have any issue with the foam inside liner. Now, I actually asked them to turn it around backwards so we can expose the suspension as well as the hard cap itself, to the full extent of that thermal energy.

And you see in that bottom image, we still don't have any melting, dripping, or anything (00:36:00) that would have caused any concerns. So, the incident energy exposure was no greater than say 28 calories. Mind you, you should never be wearing an arc flash face shield for exposure greater than 12 calories. So, this is just one of those examples. I'm gonna put up my contact information for any other questions you might have regarding arc flash PPE. Please send me an email or contact me. I have a wealth of resources that I've created over the years, that could be of assistance to yourselves. I'm happy to answer any questions that you have regarding arc flash PPE. I want to thank EasyPower for allowing me to be their guest presenter and provide this webinar for you this week. Thank you for attending. Again, my name is Jim Pollard, and if you have any questions, please contact me, and I hope to help.